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Hypodermatosis of cattle develops as a result of amantadine pills of larvae of subcutaneous gadflies in the body of animals. This disease is caused by the larvae of the common gadfly (Hypoderma bovis) and esophagus (H. lineatum) from the family. Hypodermatidae. In addition to cattle, buffalo, zebu, and yak are also susceptible to hypodermatosis. The economic damage caused by hypodermatosis consists of symmetrel online decrease in meat and dairy productivity. In addition, this disease causes damage to the leather industry.

According to their morphological features, subcutaneous gadflies are similar to each other. Their body is covered with hairs, and they are similar in appearance to order symmetrel pills. Their size is up to 16 mm. Two wide wings of smoky color are attached to the chest of the gadflies (color pl. V, 1, 3). The esophagus when approaching animals does not cause a response in them. Gadflies sit on the ground near the animals, then crawl and move freely over the skin, laying eggs on the hair. Young animals and sick animals are less reactive, and therefore their invasion is higher than in adult and healthy animals.

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The flight of winged gadflies in different climatic zones begins at different times. In the northern part of the range, gadflies begin to attack in May, and in the southern part of the country, paresis or difficulty swallowing. The fourth period of the disease is typical for its symptoms. nodules and fistulas in the skin of the back and lower back. The diagnosis is precisely established with the appearance of skin nodules and fistulas.

With single lesions, a late single treatment of cattle with hypodermin-chlorophos or chlorophos is carried out (more often in spring). A 4% solution of chlorophos is applied by light rubbing directly onto the nodules at a dose of 200-250 ml per animal. After the treatments, it is necessary to buy amantadine online the animals for the presence of new nodules. The causative agents of gadfly diseases of animals are the larvae of various gadfly. Depending on the localization of the larvae, there are subcutaneous gadflies (the genera Hypoderma and Oedemagena), gastric (Gastrophilus) and cavity (genus Oestrus, Rhinoestrus, Cephalopina and Cephenomyia).


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The imaginal (winged) phases of animal gadflies do not bite and do not take food, due to get amantadine online that their mouth organs are underdeveloped. Gadflies (imagoes) live for 1-2 weeks. Females of subcutaneous and gastric gadflies are oviparous, and females of abdominal gadflies are viviparous.

  • The winged common hypoderm is a rather large (up to 1.5 cm long) dark-colored insect resembling a bumblebee in appearance.
  • The female lays one light oval-shaped egg with a shiny surface (0.8 X 0.3 mm) on each hair of the animal.
  • The adult southern gadfly differs from the previous species in a slightly smaller body size. On one hair, the female lays eggs in groups (from 5 to 15 pieces).
  • Biology of subcutaneous gadflies. In the hot hours of symmetrel pills, female hypoderms lay 500-800 eggs on the hairline of the limbs (usually hind), abdominal wall, groin and udder of cattle.
  • After 3-7 days, hatched small larvae of the first stage from the eggs pierce the skin and enter the subcutaneous tissue.

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Within 7-9 months, the larvae make a difficult path of migration through the animal's body, and the larvae of the esophagus live in the wall of the esophagus for about five months, and the strings - in the spinal canal, after which they move towards the back and lower back. During the migration period, the larvae of the first stage turn into larvae of the second stage and increase in size. In the region of the subcutaneous tissue of the back and loins of the animal, the larvae grow rapidly, molt a second time, form tubercles, and then fistulas, through which the mature larvae of the third stage (2-2.5 cm in length) crawl out and fall to the ground.

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The duration of parasitism of larvae of the 2nd-3rd stages under the skin of the back in cattle is 2-2.5 months.